This article throws light on the three important factors influencing the perceptual set, i. When a person looks at a target and attempts to interpreter what he sees, his interpretation is greatly influenced by his personal characteristics which are discussed as follows:.
Our need pattern play an important part in how we perceive things.
Perception: Meaning, Definition, Principles and Factors Affecting in Perception
A need is a feeling of discomfort or tension when one things he is missing something or requires something. Therefore, unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perception.
When people are not able to satisfy their needs they are engaged in wishful thinking which is a way to satisfy their needs not in the real world but imaginary world. In such cases, people will perceive only those items which suit their wishful thinking. Motives also influence the perception of people. People who are devious are prone to see others as also devious.
Self concept indicates how we perceive ourselves which then influences how we perceive others and the situation we are in. The more we understand ourselves, the more we are able to perceive others accurately. For example, secure people tend to see others as warm and friendly. Less secure people often find fault with others. Perceiving ourselves accurately and enhancing our-self concept are factors that enhance accurate perception.
Our perceptions are often guided by our past experiences and what we expect to see. If a person has been betrayed by a couple of friends in the past, he would tend to distrust any new friendship that he might be in the process of developing. The psychological and emotional states of an individual are likely to influence how things are perceived.
If a person is depressed, he is likely to perceive the same situation differently than if he is elated. Similarly, if a person is scared out of wits by seeing a snake in the garden, she is likely to perceive a rope under the bed as a snake.
Thus, a fact is conceived not on what it is but what a person believes it to be. The individual normally censors stimulus inputs to avoid disturbance of his existing beliefs.
Emotion and Perception: The Role of Affective Information
Expectations affect the perception of a person. Expectations are related with the state of anticipation of particular behaviour from a person. For example, a technical manager will expect that the non- technical people will be ignorant about the technical features of the product. Elements in the environment surrounding an individual like time, location, light, heat etc.Perception is the ability to use sensory information to understand our world.
It enables us to make decisions, judgments and choices about others as well as our own safety and happiness. For example, when you drive through a new town, you immediately form an impression based on things like the appearance of buildings, types of cars, cleanliness of the street and maintenance of the landscaping. These impressions lead you to either lock your doors because you feel threatened, start looking for a restaurant that seems inviting or to just keep driving.
You form your perceptions based on both internal and external factors. Internal factors include things like mood and your interpretation of previous experiences, while external factors consist of the sensory features that trigger your internal biases and form the basis of your reactions.
Bright colors, rapid or unusual movement, interesting sounds and pungent smells all grab our attention. These external factors form the building blocks for perception because they send signals to our brains to pay attention. For example, when everything is a similar color the tendency is to focusing on details and either relax or get bored.
When a single spot of bright, contrasting color is added you will immediate see it, identify it and remember it. That spot of color will change your perception of a boring or relaxing place to one related to the color. The same can be said of other sensory information. Consider unpleasant music or a bad smell in an otherwise beautiful restaurant, for example. There is a reason that marketers strive to keep their products in front of you as much as possible. Repetition not only eventually causes us to pay attention, but it gives products an aura of authority because familiarity lends authority to their claims.
You see this in politics and teaching as well as in sales, as your perceptions are shaped by repetitive messages about issues or topics. Like a sudden noise in a peaceful setting, unexpected messages or behavior can dramatically influence our perceptions. Suddenly mean behavior from a trusted friend, for example, might cause you to immediately question your perceptions of that person as might nice behavior from a person you had superficially judged to be unpleasant.
Similarly, unexpected claims about products or historical facts can get your attention and cause you to examine an issue, idea or product more closely. The behavior of others and cultural expectations shape our perceptions on a daily basis. Think about how difficult it can be to begin a class with a teacher whose reputation is one of being unfair or overly demanding of students or a subject that is notoriously difficult. Your perception of that teacher or class and may prevent you from being open to what the teacher actually says or does.
Cultural expectations similarly shape our perceptions as they help us focus on what is important in our culture. This sometimes cause tension between people of different cultures in social and business relationships based on a mismatch between intentions and perceptions. For example, averted eyes is considered respectful in many cultures, but it's often interpreted as inattention in America.
Meredyth Glass has been writing for educational institutions since She contributes to eHow in the areas of parenting, child development, language and social skill development and the importance of play.
The database based on Word Net is a lexical database for the English Language. See disclaimer.Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of individual perceiver.
The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are:. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives others in the environmental situation. Characteristics in the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. Physical appearance plays a big role in our perception of others.
Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are more likely to be noticed in a group than ordinary liking individuals. Motion, sound, size and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it.
The perceiver will notice the target's physical features like height, weight, estimated age, race and gender. Perceivers tend to notice physical appearance characteristics that contrast with the norm, that are intense, or that are new or unusual. Physical attractiveness often colourour entire impression of another person. Interviewers rate attractive candidates more favourably and attractive candidates are awarded higher starting salaries.
Verbal communication from targets also affects our perception of them. We listen to the topics they speak about, their voice tone, and their accent and make judgements based on this input. Non-verbal communication conveys a great deal of information about the target. The perceiver deciphers eye contact, facial expressions, body movements, and posture all inan attempt to form an impression of the target.
For example, if our manager comes to our office door way, we think "oh no! Or we may perceive that his intention is to congratulate us on a recent success. In any case, the perceiver's interpretation of the target's intentions affects the way the perceiver views the target.
Targets are not looked at in isolation, the relationship of a target to its background influences perception because of our tendency to group close things and similar things together. Objects that are close to each other will tend to be perceived together rather than separately.
As a result of physical or time proximity, we often put together objects orevents that are unrelated. For examples, employees in a particular department are seen as a group.
If two employees of a department suddenly resign, we tend to assume their departures were related when in fact, they might be totally unrelated.
People, objects or events that are similar to each other also tend to be grouped together. The greater the similarity, the greater the probability we will tend to perceive them as a group. The situation in which the interaction between the perceiver and the target takes place has an influence on the perceiver's impression of the target. For example, a professor may not notice his year-old female student in a bikini at the swimming pool.
Yet the professor will notice the same girl if she comes to his organizational behaviour class in abikini. In the same way, meeting a manager in his or her office affects your impression in a certain way that may contrast with the impression you would form had you met the manager in a restaurant.
The strength of the situational cues also affects social perception. Some situations provide strong cues as to appropriate behaviour. In these situations, we assume that the individual's behaviour can be accounted for by the situation, and that it may not reflect the individual's disposition.
This is the discounting principle in social perception. For example, you mayen counter an automobile sales person who has a warm and personable manner, asks you about your work and hobbies, and seems genuinely interested in your taste in cars.Perception is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information to represent and understand the environment.
The perceptual process is the sequence of psychological steps that a person uses to organize and interpret information from the outside world. The steps are:. The selection, organization, and interpretation of perceptions can differ among different people. Therefore, when people react differently in a situation, part of their behavior can be explained by examining their perceptual process, and how their perceptions are leading to their responses.
Multistability : The Necker cube and Rubin vase can be perceived in more than one way. The vase can be seen as either a vase or two faces. After certain perceptions are selected, they can be organized differently. The following factors are those that determine perceptual organization:. Each of these factors influence how the person perceives their environment, so responses to their environment can be understood by taking the perceptual process into account.
Perceptual distortions, such as cognitive bias, can result in poor judgement and irrational courses of action.
A cognitive bias is a pattern of deviation in judgment that occurs in particular situations and can lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality.
Implicit in the concept of a pattern of deviation is a standard of comparison with what is normative or expected; this may be the judgment of people outside those particular situations, or a set of independently verifiable facts.
Essentially, there must be an objective observer to identify cognitive bias in a subjective individual. Optical illusion : In this optical illusion all lines are actually parallel. Perceptual distortion makes them seem crooked. Bias arises from various processes that can be difficult to distinguish. Bias is not inherently good or bad—it is pointedly subjective or contrary to reactions or decisions that one might objectively expect. Ways in which biases are derived include:.
They and their colleagues demonstrated several replicable ways in which human judgments and decisions differ from rational choice theory.
They explained these differences in terms of heuristics, rules which are simple for the brain to compute but which introduce systematic errors. The ways in which we distort our perception are particularly relevant for managers because they make many decisions, and deal with many people making assessments an judgments, on a daily basis.
Managers must be aware of their own logical and perceptive fallacies and the biases of others. This requires a great deal of organizational behavior knowledge. A few useful perceptual distortions managers should be aware of include:. Impression management is a goal-directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of others.
Outline the way in which impressions and impressions management affect management, organizations, and branding. In sociology and social psychology, impression management is a goal -directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of others about a person, object, or event.
Impression management is performed by controlling or shaping information in social interactions. It is usually synonymous with self-presentation, in which a person tries to influence how others perceive their image. While impression management and self-presentation are often used interchangeably, some argue that they are not the same. Organizations put forward a self-proclaimed and strategized and refined organizational perception.While fixing the prices of a product, the firm should consider the cost involved in producing the product.
This cost includes both the variable and fixed costs. Thus, while fixing the prices, the firm must be able to recover both the variable and fixed costs. For instance, if the objective of a firm is to increase return on investment, then it may charge a higher price, and if the objective is to capture a large market share, then it may charge a lower price. The price of the product may also be determined on the basis of the image of the firm in the market.
The stage at which the product is in its product life cycle also affects its price. The pricing of the product is also affected by the credit period offered by the company.
Longer the credit period, higher may be the price, and shorter the credit period, lower may be the price of the product. The promotional activity undertaken by the firm also determines the price. If the firm incurs heavy advertising and sales promotion costs, then the pricing of the product shall be kept high in order to recover the cost. If there is high competition, the prices may be kept low to effectively face the competition, and if competition is low, the prices may be kept high.
External Factors Influencing Perception
The marketer should consider various consumer factors while fixing the prices. The consumer factors that must be considered includes the price sensitivity of the buyer, purchasing power, and so on.
Government rules and regulation must be considered while fixing the prices. At the time of recession, the consumer may have less money to spend, so the marketer may reduce the prices in order to influence the buying decision of the consumers.
The marketer must consider a number of channel intermediaries and their expectations. The longer the chain of intermediaries, the higher would be the prices of the goods. You must be logged in to post a comment. Brand Positioning: Meaning and Positioning Strategies. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.Our website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors. Please consider supporting us by disabling your ad blocker.
Mastering some of the forces that impact your business is more challenging than handling others. The extent to which you can control them differs. You can change how internal and external factors affect your firm.
You cannot make the economy grow. But, you can encourage spending. Learning more about the factors at work will better equip you. In this article, I will not go into much detail about external factors. I will discuss elaborately how internal factors can impact a business.
Internal & External Factors That Affect an Organization
I will talk about the most popularly assessed internal factors. The internal business environment comprises of factors within the company which impact the success and approach of operations. Unlike the external environmentthe company has control over these factors. It is important to recognize potential opportunities and threats outside company operations. However, managing the strengths of internal operations is the key to business success. The role of company leadership is an essential internal factor.
Your leadership style and other management style impact organizational culture. Often, firms provide a formal structure with its mission and vision statements. Some cultural implications which result from leadership approaches are:. The strength of employees is also an essential internal business factor. Check if employees are motivated, hard-working and talented.
They will produce better results compared to an unmotivated and less talented workforce. The processes and relationships between and within departments can also improve effectiveness and efficiency.
In a high performing workplace, the workers not only have talent, but they also work better together. The employees and departments collaborate on ideas and resolutions. The internal factors basically include the inner strengths and weaknesses.
Internal factors can affect how a company meets its objectives. Strengths have a favorable impact on a business. Weaknesses have a harmful effect on the firm.
Some examples of areas which are typically considered in internal factors are:. Companies must also consider softer elements like company culture and imagethe role of key staff, operational efficiency and potential.
Below, I have mentioned the most common internal factors.Everyday different stimuli around us will be stimulating our sense organs. Many of these stimuli are received by our sense organs and are converted into sensations. In turn the brain will interpret these sensations. It is only after such interpretation we understand what the stimulus is.
Hence in understanding the world around us, attention occurs first, followed by sensation and finally interpretation by brain. So perception involves two processes: sensation interpretation. But interpretation of any stimulus requires past experience also. For example, a child who has not seen an elephant earlier either in photo or directly cannot identify that animal, whereas another child who has seen earlier will identify the animal easily.
Perception is not as simple as said here. It is an integrated approach. It is a synthetic process where different physiological and psychological processes are involved. For example, the accuracy of sense organs, clarity of sensations, mental set of an individual, etc.
Otherwise our perception may go wrong. William James American psychologist has said if we understand the world as it appears to us, it will be a big booming- buzzing confusion. Hence, we do not see the things as they appear, but we see them as we want, i.
In perceptual process we select a particular stimulus with our attention and interpret it. In the same way whenever it is necessary many discrete stimuli in our visual field are organised into a form and perceived more meaningfully than they appear. This phenomenon was well explained by Gestalt psychologists. They believed that the brain creates a coherent perceptual experience by perceiving a stimulus as a whole than perceiving discrete entities.
This is explained under many sub-principles of perception. According to this principle any figure can be perceived more meaningfully in a background and that figure cannot be separated from that background. For example, letters written with a white chalk piece are perceived clearly in the background of a blackboard. In the Figure 3. So also the white background can be perceived as a vessel in the background of two faces.
As said above, according to gestalt principle, the objects can be perceived meaningfully when they are grouped together. There are some principles which are followed by us in order to make our perception more meaningful. Proximity means nearness. The objects which are nearer to each other can be perceived meaningfully by grouping them. The stars in the Figure 3. Stimuli need not be nearer to each other for perception.
If there is similarity in these objects, they are grouped together and perceived, even if they are away. For example, in this Figure 3. Any stimulus which extends in the same direction or shape will be perceived as a whole Figure 3. For example, A in this figure though the curved line is broken, it is perceived as a continuous line, so also straight line is not seen with semicircles but as a continuous line B the dots are perceived as existing in the same line of direction continuously.